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Archive for September, 2011

Bribes For Visas At German Embassies

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 3:04 PM
Thursday, September 22, 2011

Reported in the New York Times in December 2010, public prosecutors in Berlin are investigating allegations that staff in some German embassies took bribes in exchange for issuing visas.

According the the Foreign Ministry local staff in German embassies in the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa hacve issued visas in exchange for money and have overlooded false statemenst and did not properly review applications. These allegations have already brought about the dissmisal of some employees and investications are ongoing.

Police suspect that human trafficking networks seeking to bring women to work as prostitutes where being run from with in Germany and were using bribes to gain visas.  Officials cannot say how many visas were issued in exchange for bribes.

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Different Types Of Twins?

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 2:58 PM
Thursday, September 22, 2011

Most people don’t relies that there are many different types of twins in the world. Not only can you be identical or fraternal twins but you might be one of any number of other type.  Below are some of the most common other types of twin.

2. Twins Conceived Separately: Superfetation
Normally when an egg is fertilized, a woman’s cycle is interrupted and ovulation ceases. Rarely, however, an egg can be released while a woman is already pregnant, resulting in twins that are conceived at different times.
More: Superfation
3. Twins with Different Fathers: Heteropaternal Superfecundation
Fraternal (dizygotic) twins are the result of hyperovulation, the release of multiple eggs in a single cycle. Superfecundation describes a situation where the eggs are fertilized by sperm from separate incidences of sexual intercourse. In a case where a woman has sex with different partners, the twins could have different fathers and the apporpriate term is heteropaternal superfecundation.
More: Heteropaternal Superfecundation
4. “Half Identical” Twins: Polar Body Twins
There are two types of twins, right? Dizygotic (fraternal) twins result when two eggs are fertilied. Monozygotic (identical) twins come from a single fertilized egg that splits. But what if the egg splits and then each half meets a sperm? That’s the proposed theory for polar body or “half-identical” twins, twins who are very much alike but aren’t a 100% DNA match. Although it seems to be a reasonable theory, there is no definitive test to confirm polar body twinning.
More: Polar Body Twinning
5. Boy/Girl Identical (Monozygotic) Twins
Identical (monozygotic) twins are always same gender because they form from a single zygote that contains either male (XY) or female (XX) sex chromosome. However, there have been a few reported cases of a genetic mutation in male twins where one twin loses an Y chromosome and develops as a female. The female twin would be afflicted with Turner’s Syndrome, characterized by short stature and lack of ovarian development. Of course, another explanation for gender differences in identical twins is an identical twin who undergoes a sex change operation.
More Info
6. Mirror Image Twins
Mirror image twins are monozygotic, twint that form from a single fertilized egg. When the split occurs late – more than a week after conception – the twins can develop reverse asymmetric features. This term is not really a type of twin, just an way to describe their physical features. For exmample, they may be right- and left-handed, have birthmarks on opposite sides of their body, or have hair whorls that swirl in opposite directions. In theory, if the twins faced each other, they would appear to be exact reflections of each other. About 25% of identical twins are mirror image twins.
More: Mirror Image Twins
7. Parasitic Twins
A type of conjoined tiwns that develops asymmetrically, with a smaller, less formed twin dependent on the stronger, larger twin. Manar Maged gained notoriety after being featured onOprah. A variation of parasitic twinning is fetus in fetu, where an abnormally formed mass of cells grows inside the body of its monozygotic twin. It survives during pregnancy, and even occasionally after birth, by tapping directly into the blood supply of the host twin. This reportdescribes an Indian man whose fetus in fetu was discovered as an adult.
More: Parasitic Twinning and Fetus in Fetu
8. Semi-Identical Twins
A type of twinning identified in a pair of three-year-old twins in 2007. Described as identical on the mother’s side but sharing only half their father’s genes, the rare twins developed when two sperm fertilized a single egg, which then split. One twin is a hermaphrodite being raised as a female, with both testicular and ovarian structures, while the other is anatomically male.
9. Twins with Different Birthdays
The most common explanation is a labor and delivery that begins before midnight on one day and ends after the clock changes to the next day. If that day happens at the end of the month, or even on New Year’s Eve/Day, the two babies can have birthdays in different months and even different years! Also, sometimes a pregnancy is prolonged to provide each baby with an optimal chance for survival. If preterm labor forces the delivery of one baby, doctors can successfully control the abor and delay delivery to give the other baby more time in the womb. Twins and higher multiples have been born days and even weeks apart.
More: Twins With Different Birthdays
10. Twins of Different Races
Heteropaternal superfecundation can explain cases of fraternal (dizygotic) twins with differing racial characteristics. In one case, the differentiation was due to a lab mix-up during an in-vitro procedure. However, in 2005 in the United Kingdom, two bi-racial parents conceived fraternal (dizygotic) twin girl twins, Kian and Remee Hodgson. Described as a “one in a million” occurrence, experts explain that the girls inherited different genetic characteristics from their mixed race parents. One is fair-haired and light skinned, while the other has dark hair, eyes and skin.

1. Conjoined Twins are monozygotic multiples that do not fully separate from each other due to the incomplete division of the fertilized ovum. The individuals will be connected at certain points of the body, and may share tissue, organs or limbs.

2. Twins Conceived Separately or Superfetation Twins occurs when an egg is released while a woman is already pregnant, resulting in twins that are conceived at different times.

3. Twins with Different Fathers or Heteropaternal Superfecundation occurs when fraternal (dizygotic) twins which are the product of multiple eggs being released in a single cycle are fertilized by sperm from separate incidences of sexual intercourse. In a case where a woman has sex with different partners, the twins could have different fathers and the appropriate term is heteropaternal superfecundation.

4. “Half Identical” Twins or Polar Body Twins is a theory at this time.  There are two types of twins, right? Dizygotic (fraternal) twins result when two eggs are fertilized. Monozygotic (identical) twins come from a single fertilized egg that splits. But what if the egg splits and then each half meets a sperm? That’s the proposed theory for polar body or “half-identical” twins, twins who are very much alike but aren’t a 100% DNA match. Although it seems to be a reasonable theory, there is no definitive test to confirm polar body twinning.

5. Boy/Girl Identical (Monozygotic) Twins occurs when there is a genetic mutation in male twins where one twin loses an Y chromosome and develops as a female. The female twin would be afflicted with Turner’s Syndrome, characterized by short stature and lack of ovarian development. Of course, another explanation for gender differences in identical twins is an identical twin who undergoes a sex change operation.

6. Mirror Image Twins are monozygotic, twins that form from a single fertilized egg. When the split occurs late – more than a week after conception – the twins can develop reverse asymmetric features. This term is not really a type of twin, just an way to describe their physical features. For example, they may be right- and left-handed, have birthmarks on opposite sides of their body, or have hair whorls that swirl in opposite directions. In theory, if the twins faced each other, they would appear to be exact reflections of each other. About 25% of identical twins are mirror image twins.

7. Parasitic Twins is a type of conjoined twins that develops asymmetrically, with a smaller, less formed twin dependent on the stronger, larger twin. A variation of parasitic twinning is fetus in fetu, where an abnormally formed mass of cells grows inside the body of its monozygotic twin. It survives during pregnancy, and even occasionally after birth, by tapping directly into the blood supply of the host twin.

8. Semi-Identical Twins is a type of twinning identified as identical on the mother’s side but sharing only half their father’s genes, the rare twins developed when two sperm fertilized a single egg, which then split.

9. Twins with Different Birthdays the most  common explanation is a labor and delivery that begins before midnight and ends on the following day. If that day happens at the end of the month, or even the end of a year, the two babies can have birthdays in different months and even different years. Sometimes a pregnancy is prolonged to provide each baby with an optimal chance for survival. If preterm labor forces the delivery of one baby, doctors can successfully control the labor and delay delivery to give the other baby more time in the womb. Twins and higher multiples have been born days and even weeks apart.

10. Twins of Different Races can be caused by heteropaternal superfecundation. There are cases of fraternal (dizygotic) twins with differing racial characteristics. In one case, the differentiation was due to a lab mix-up during an in-vitro procedure. However, there is a case where two bi-racial parents conceived fraternal (dizygotic) twin girl twins, experts explain that the girls inherited different genetic characteristics from their mixed race parents. One is fair-haired and light skinned, while the other has dark hair, eyes and skin.

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Does Blood Type, Hair Color or Eye Color Determine Paternity?

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 2:44 PM
Thursday, September 22, 2011

As a DNA Relationship specialist, I have a lot of folks tell me that they assume that they are or are not related because of eye color, blood type or general appearance. Many people say things like “but the baby looks just like me”  or ” I have a different eye color than everyone else in my family so I must be someone else’s child”.  I am here to tell you that appearances are not always  a good indication of who the parent is.  I would like to  offer some answers to these questions or assumptions.

It is not possible to conclusively confirm paternity by using blood typing. The only thing you can establish is that the parents of the child had specific blood groups such as A, B, AB, or O. This does not eliminate any one else within those groups. As you can see below there are many possible combinations based on blood type:

 

As you can see, blood type does not answer conclusively the question of paternity. And as well, appearance also cannot definitively answer that question.  I have often heard, “she/he has brown eyes and both of her parents have blue eyes” so they are not sure who their parents are.  Eye color  cannot conclusively determine paternity. Eye color follows a polygenic inheritance pattern, and is probably controlled by 6 or more genes. Generally, these genes express themselves as one of 8 different eye colors. “Dark” is dominant at each of the 6 genes. The more dominant alleles present, the darker eye color appears. Therefore, eye color provides an even lower level of certainty than blood typing in determining paternity.

The same thing stands for hair color, let’s say red. It takes 2 carriers (Rr) to have a red-headed child.When a red hair carrier mates with a non-carrier, their children are not red headed, but some of their children will carry the red hair r allele. The frequency of the r alleles in the population in fact remains constant. We cannot easily tell if a person is a red hair carrier (Rr) without examining his/her extended family members’ hair colors or analyzing his/her MC1R gene.  However, we can reasonably expect the population of red hair carriers is much greater than that of the redheads. Even though there is no redhead in your immediate family, the chance that you are a carrier (Rr) is still quite high. It is estimated that as many as one in four Caucasians in the US might be a red hair carrier. Therefore, if parents don’t actually have red hair, if they both carry the red hair gene their children can have red hair.

Therefore, as it turns out, there are so many variables when it comes to eye, hair , blood type or looks the most conclusive way to discover the truth is to perform a paternity or maternity test. I hope this provided your with valuable answers  and addressed your questions or concerns.

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No DNA Test Is Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Love Child Really His?

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 2:40 PM
Thursday, September 22, 2011

Multiple sources have confirmed that Arnold Schwarzenegger never asked for a DNA test to prove he was the father of Mildred Baena’s child.  In addition, Mildred Baena has yet to establish paternity which typically requires a DNA test.

Sources state that Baena’s husband was out of the country when the child was conceived and that he did not return until shortly before the baby was born.  In addition it is said that the child bears a striking resemblance to Schwarzenegger and to Schwarzenegger’s youngest son Christopher.

According to the American Association of Blood Banks an agency that also monitors DNA Paternity Testing, 3.5 out of 10 Paternity Test comes back as a negative.

Is Arnold Schwarzenegger safe to assume Mildred Baena’s child is his with out a DNA Test? Appearances can be deceiving especially when it comes to a persons DNA. Do you think Arnold Schwarzenegger should insist on a DNA test?

By

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New Hope for Old Cases: Full DNA Profile of Ted Bundy Now Available

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 2:32 PM
Thursday, September 22, 2011

New Hope for Old Cases: Full DNA Profile of Ted Bundy Now Available

Twenty Two years after Ted Bundy’s execution, and at least 30 dead, a full DNA profile of Bundy is now available though CODIS the FBI DNA database. It is hoped that his profile can bring closure to open homicide cases nation wide.

DNA was extracted from a vial of blood discovered in a courthouse where it had been stored for the last three decades. The profile was assembled by David Coffman, chief of forensics at the Florida Department of Law Enforcement. Coffman says that police departments can now enter DNA evidence they might have from cold cases into the system and see if there is any match with Mr. Bundy’s DNA

Coffman also said in an interview that he typically receives four or five calls a year from investigators located nation-wide asking about Bundy’s DNA in connection with unsolved cases. He went on to state that until now there has been no full DNA profile available. Because of the length of time Bundy was actively killing, and because he was active on both the west and the east coasts, many investigators would like to confirm or eliminate him as a suspect. Unfortunately, his crimes took place well before the advent of DNA technology and therefore, his DNA was not secured before his death. In 2002 a partial DNA profile was created from a tissue sample taken during Bundy’s autopsy, but the profile from the tissue sample was not complete enough to enter into the F.B.I. database CODIS. Until now.

Coffman’s department was contacted earlier this year by the Tacoma Washington Police Department for a cold case that involved an 8-year-old girl who disappeared from her house in 1961. They suspected Bundy because he was living in Tacoma at the time and alway claimed that he got is start as a teen. He was 14 at the time. Bundy denied responsibility for her disappearance.

Coffman’s department made an effort to extract DNA from two dental molds held at the department’s forensics laboratory. The impressions, which had been taken in the 1970s, matched bite marks on the left buttock of 20-year-old Lisa Levy, one of two students at Florida State University Mr. Bundy was convicted of killing. But the DNA in the dental molds was too degraded to use for a profile.

Coffman’s department then started calling contacts around Florida to see if any evidence might still exist that could contain DNA. Fortunately, a vial of blood was found in the evidence vault at the Columbia County courthouse. The blood had been taken in 1978 in connection with the death of 12-year-old Kimberly Leach in Lake City, Fla., the third murder Mr. Bundy was convicted for.

Despite being 33 years old, the sample was perfect and a full profile was created and uploaded into the F.B.I.’s DNA database, CODIS.

According to Coffman, at this time there have been no hits on any cold cases. The Tacoma police hope to test any DNA they can find from the Burr case against the Bundy profile. Cold-case detective in the Tacoma Police Department’s homicide unit, Gene Miller said his office was shipping biological material from the Burr house to the state’s crime laboratory and that if DNA can be extracted, it would then be uploaded into the F.B.I.’s database. He and his office feel that this could be “a huge step forward,” Detective Miller said. Even if it does not, “it will still be a great step forward,” because it will finally eliminate or confirm him as a suspect. It is likely that police departments in other areas where Bundy passed through will do the same.

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Does Chaotic Parenting Led To Insecure Kids?

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 2:51 PM
Thursday, September 15, 2011

By Alvaro Castillo
Very few of us manage to have disciplined, orderly households where everything runs like clockwork, kids never misbehave or parents never disagree. But there are some valid reasons why at least a healthy measure of order is important. Children, especially little ones, feel most secure and safe in a loving, structured environment. Several studies have shown that too little structure and routine can cause anxiety.

Children not only need to know when they are going to be fed, when it is bath and bedtime and when they have to go to school. They also need to know when behavior is unacceptable and what the consequences are.

 

Consistency

Effective discipline entails setting clear limits, communicating clearly and punishing in a consistent way. There is no point in punishing a child harshly today but only reprimanding him the next day for the same misdemeanor. Rewarding positive behaviour consistently is equally important. Parents also need to adapt their disciplining style as their children grow older. Very young children, for example, need immediate punishment (and rewards!).

 

When Parents Argue

Parental discord or disagreement is a great source of inconsistency. Children feel very confused if they receive conflicting messages from each parent and soon learn that they can play one parent off against the other. Parents need to agree on one set of rules and stick to it. If a parent disagrees with the other parent’s parenting style, it should be addressed – but not in front of the children.

A common cause of inconsistency is when parents feel they need to overcompensate and became more lenient to make up for something, such as long working hours, marital discord or divorce. The sad thing is that instead of “treating” their child in that way, they increase the child’s insecurity and fears.

 

‘But Suzie’s mom…’

Adolescents in particular are great at comparing their parents to their friends’. While it helps to learn from other parents, don’t be pressurized into changing rules in order to fit in or not to come across as the unreasonable, stuck-up mom. Chances are, Suzie’s mom is probably hearing the same story.

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Tip of the Month – September 2011

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 10:26 AM
Wednesday, September 7, 2011

We release DNA Test results in 2 batches, one in the morning and one in the afternoon.  If you do not receive your case in the morning (around 10am-11am) release, you should receive it in the afternoon release.  Should you have any questions please feel free to contact us regarding your case.

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