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Posts Tagged ‘immigration’

U.S. To Rename, Update Immigration Records System

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 2:04 PM
Tuesday, July 31, 2012

As Found on GovPulse.US


In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974 the Department of Homeland Security U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement is updating an existing system of records titled, Department of Homeland Security/ U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement–011 Removable Alien Records System of Records, January 28, 2009, and renaming it Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement–011 Immigration and Enforcement Operational Records System of Records. With the publication of this updated system of records, the Department of Homeland Security is also retiring an existing system of records titled, Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement–Customs and Border Protection–U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services–001-03 Enforcement Operational Immigration Records System of Records, March 20, 2006, and transferring certain law enforcement and immigration records described therein that are owned by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement to this updated system of records. Categories of individuals and categories of records have been reviewed, and the purpose statement and routine uses of this system have been updated to better reflect the current status of these records. Additionally, this notice includes non-substantive changes to simplify the formatting and text of the previously published notice. This updated system will continue to be included in the Department of Homeland Security’s inventory of record systems.


Publication Date:
Monday, March 01, 2010
Federal Register Document Number:
Publishing Agency:
Department of Homeland Security
Submit comments on or before March 31, 2010. This amended system will be effective March 31, 2010.
Effective Date:
Comments Close:
Notice Of Amendment Of Privacy Act System Of Records.
Part Name:
Entry Type:
Other Formats:
html | text | pdf | regulations.gov
Start Page:
End Page:


Table of Contents

Submit comments on or before March 31, 2010. This amended system will be effective March 31, 2010.

You may submit comments, identified by docket number DHS-2009-0144 by one of the following methods:

•Federal e-Rulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. Follow the instructions for submitting comments.


•Mail: Mary Ellen Callahan, Chief Privacy Officer, Privacy Office, Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528.

•Instructions: All submissions received must include the agency name and docket number for this rulemaking. All comments received will be posted without change to http://www.regulations.gov, including any personal information provided.

•Docket: For access to the docket to read background documents or comments received go to http://www.regulations.gov.


I. Background 

In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, the Department of Homeland Security is updating and reissuing Department of Homeland Security (DHS)/U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)—011 Removable Alien Records System of Records (74 FR 4965, Jan. 28, 2009) to include additional DHS records pertaining to the investigation, arrest, booking, detention, and removal of persons encountered during immigration and criminal law enforcement investigations and operations conducted by DHS. This system of records is also being updated to include records pertaining to fugitive aliens and aliens paroled into the United States (U.S.) by ICE. The system of records is being renamed DHS/ICE-011 Immigration and Enforcement Operational Records System of Records (ENFORCE) to better reflect the nature and scope of the records maintained.

DHS is updating this notice to include the following substantive changes: (1) An update to the categories of records to include clarifying language as well as to provide the Department of Justice (DOJ) with DNA samples as required by 28 CFR Part 28; (2) the addition of routine uses to (a) incorporate the routine uses that were already part of the published DHS/ICE—011 Removable Aliens Records System of Records (RARS) (74 FR 20719, May 5, 2009) into this newly consolidated SORN, (b) provide information to individuals in the determination of whether or not an alien has been removed from the U.S., (c) assist agencies in collecting debts owed to them or the U.S. Government, (d) allow sharing with the Department of State (DOS) for immigration benefits and visa activities, as well as when DOS is contacted by foreign governments to discuss particular matters involving aliens in custody or other ICE enforcement matters that may involve identified individuals, (e) allow the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to review the private immigration relief bill process in Congress, (f) inform members of Congress about an alien who is being considered for private immigration relief, (g) share operational information with other law enforcement agencies to prevent conflicting investigations or activities, (h) coordinate the transportation, custody, and care of U.S. Marshals Service (USMS) prisoners, (i) allow third parties to facilitate the placement or release of an alien who has been or are in the process of being released from ICE custody, (j) provide information about an alien who has or is in the process of being released from ICE custody who may pose a health or safety risk, (k) to provide information facilitating the issuance of an immigration detainer on an individual in custody or the transfer of an individual to ICE or another agency, (l) disclose DNA samples and related information as required by Federal regulation, (m) to facilitate the transmission of arrest information to the Department of Justice for inclusion in relevant law enforcement databases and for the enforcement Federal firearms licensing laws, and (n) to disclose information to persons seeking to post or arrange immigration bonds. These updated routine uses are compatible with the purpose of this system becausethey sharing will assist ICE with its immigration and law enforcement mission.

With the publication of this notice, DHS is also merging into the DHS/ICE-011 ENFORCE System of Records certain records from an existing system of records titled, DHS/ICE-CBP-CIS-001-03 Enforcement Operational Immigration Records System of Records (71 FR 13987, March 20, 2006), and retiring that system of records. When last published, DHS/ICE-CBP-CIS-001-03 Enforcement Operational Immigration Records System of Records covered biometric and biographic information collected during DHS enforcement encounters and screening at ports of entry. The system of records supported DHS in the identification, investigation, apprehension, and/or removal of aliens unlawfully entering or present in the U.S. and facilitated the legal entry of individuals. The records described in DHS/ICE-CBP-CIS-001-03 Enforcement Operational Immigration Records System of Records were owned by several components within DHS, specifically ICE, CBP, and USCIS. After stewardship for the DHS biometric records database titled, Automated Biometric Identification System (IDENT), which had been covered by DHS/ICE-CBP-CIS-001-03 Enforcement Operational Immigration Records System of Records, was transferred in 2006 to DHS’s U.S. Visitor and Immigrant Status Indictor Technology (US-VISIT) Program, US-VISIT established a separate system of records titled, DHS/US-VISIT-0012 Automated Biometric Identification System (IDENT) (72 FR 31080, June 5, 2007) to cover records in that database. The remaining non-IDENT records in DHS/ICE-CBP-CIS-001-03 Enforcement Operational Immigration Records System of Records pertained to enforcement encounters and admission screening of individuals at the border, and were owned by ICE and CBP. Of those, CBP records are now covered by the system of records titled, DHS/CBP-011 TECS System of Records (73 FR 77778, December 19, 2008), and ICE’s records are now covered by the DHS/ICE-011 ENFORCE System of Records, which is the subject of this notice.

II. ENFORCE System of Records 

The DHS/ICE-011 ENFORCE System of Records consists of paper and electronic records related to the investigation, arrest, booking, detention, and removal of persons encountered during immigration and criminal law enforcement investigations and operations conducted by DHS, including fugitive aliens and paroled aliens.

Criminal and Immigration Enforcement Records 

The DHS/ICE-011 ENFORCE System of Records contains personal information about individuals who are criminal suspects, alleged immigration violators, and other individuals whose information may be collected or obtained during the course of an immigration enforcement or criminal matter (e.g., witnesses, associates, relatives). This system of records will also contain biographical information of those prisoners that ICE holds in its detention facilities for the USMS under an interagency agreement. These records are maintained in an ICE-owned and operated information technology system known as the Enforcement Integrated Database (EID). Associated paper records are also maintained. EID captures and maintains information related to the investigation, arrest, booking, detention, and removal of persons encountered during immigration and law enforcement investigations and operations conducted by ICE. While CBP law enforcement personnel can also create and access EID information, CBP records in EID are covered by the DHS/CBP TECS System of Records.

The EID supports a variety of DHS law enforcement processes and workflows, especially those related to the enforcement of immigration laws. As an alleged immigration violator (i.e., subject) moves through the enforcement process (e.g., arrest, booking, detention, or removal), DHS personnel create, modify, and access the data stored in the EID’s central data repository. In addition to supporting the immigration enforcement process, EID also supports DHS’s arrest and booking of subjects for violations of U.S. customs laws and other Federal criminal laws. This updated system of records notice is being published concurrently with the Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) for ICE’s EID because information maintained in EID is described in this notice. The EID PIA is available on the DHS Privacy Office Web site at <http://www.dhs.gov/privacy.

Fugitive Alien Records <

The DHS/ICE-011 ENFORCE System of Records also contains records pertaining to ICE’s efforts to identify, locate, apprehend and remove fugitive aliens from the United States. Fugitive aliens are aliens ordered and/or removed from the United States by a U.S. Immigration Judge, but who failed to appear as ordered for removal. ICE maintains records on aliens who are fugitives and collects information from other government systems and commercial data sources to identify leads that may reveal the fugitive’s current location. ICE records are updated when fugitive aliens are apprehended and removed by ICE. ICE’s Fugitive Case Management System (FCMS) is the information system in which these records are maintained, and associated paper records are also maintained. A PIA for FCMS is available on the DHS Privacy Office Web site at <http://www.dhs.gov/privacy.

Paroled Alien Records 

Finally, the DHS/ICE-011 ENFORCE System of Records also contains records pertaining to aliens who are paroled into the United States by ICE. ICE maintains records on the individual aliens who are paroled into the United States in order to track and manage parolees and ensure they comply with the terms of parole. ICE’s Parole Case Tracking System (PCTS) is the information system in which these records are maintained, and associated paper records are also maintained. A PIA for PCTS is in progress and expected to be published in 2010.

Consistent with DHS’s information sharing mission, information stored in the DHS/ICE-011 ENFORCE System of Records may be shared with other DHS components, as well as appropriate Federal, State, local, Tribal, foreign, or international government agencies. This sharing will only take place after DHS determines that the receiving component or agency has a need to know the information to carry out national security, law enforcement, immigration, intelligence, or other functions consistent with the routine uses set forth in this system of records notice.

Portions of the DHS/ALL-011 ENFORCE System of Records are exempt from one or more provisions of the Privacy Act because of criminal, civil and administrative enforcement requirements. Individuals may request information about records pertaining to them stored in the DHS/ALL-011 ENFORCE System of Records as outlined in the “Notification Procedure” section below. ICE reserves the right to exempt various records from release. The Secretary of Homeland Security has exempted portions of this system of records from subsections (c)(3) and (4); (d); (e)(1), (e)(2), (e)(3), (e)(4)(G), (e)(4)(H), (e)(5), and (e)(8); and (g) of the Privacy Act pursuant to 5 U.S.C. § 552a(j)(2). In addition, the Secretary of Homeland Security has exempted portions of this system of records fromsubsections (c)(3); (d); (e)(1), (e)(4)(G), and (e)(4)(H) of the Privacy Act pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a(k)(2). These exemptions apply only to the extent that records in the system are subject to exemption pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a(j)(2) and (k)(2).

III. Privacy Act 

The Privacy Act embodies fair information principles in a statutory framework governing the means by which the U.S. Government collects, maintains, uses, and disseminates individuals’ records. The Privacy Act applies to information that is maintained in a “system of records.” A “system of records” is a group of any records under the control of an agency for which information is retrieved by the name of an individual or by some identifying number, symbol, or other identifying particular assigned to the individual. In the Privacy Act, an individual is defined to encompass U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents. As a matter of policy, DHS extends administrative Privacy Act protections to all individuals where systems of records maintain information on U.S. citizens, lawful permanent residents, and visitors. Individuals may request access to their own records that are maintained in a system of records in the possession or under the control of DHS by complying with DHS Privacy Act regulations, 6 CFR Part 5.

The Privacy Act requires each agency to publish in the Federal Register a description denoting the type and character of each system of records that the agency maintains, and the routine uses that are contained in each system in order to make agency recordkeeping practices transparent, to notify individuals regarding the uses to which their records are put, and to assist individuals to more easily find such files within the agency. Below is the description of the DHS/ICE-011 Immigration and Enforcement Operational Records (ENFORCE) System of Records.

In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552a(r), DHS has provided a report of this system of records to the Office of Management and Budget and to Congress.





Immigration and Enforcement Operational Records (ENFORCE).


Unclassified; Controlled Unclassified Information (CUI).


Records are maintained at the U.S. Immigration Customs and Enforcement (ICE) Headquarters in Washington, DC, ICE field and attaché offices, and detention facilities operated by or on behalf of ICE, or that otherwise house individuals detained by ICE.


Categories of individuals covered by this system include:

1. Individuals arrested, detained, and/or removed for criminal and/or administrative violations of the Immigration and Nationality Act, or individuals who are the subject of an ICE immigration detainer issued to another custodial agency;

2. Individuals arrested by ICE law enforcement personnel for violations of Federal criminal laws enforced by ICE or DHS;

3. Individuals who fail to leave the United States after receiving a final order of removal, deportation, or exclusion, or who fail to report to ICE for removal after receiving notice to do so (fugitive aliens);

4. Individuals who are granted parole into the United States under section 212(d)(5) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (parolees);

5. Other individuals whose information may be collected or obtained during the course of an immigration enforcement or criminal matter, such as witnesses, associates, and relatives;

6. Attorneys or representatives who represent individuals listed in categories (a)-(d) above;

7. Persons who post or arrange bond for the release of an individual from ICE detention, or receive custodial property of a detained alien;

8. Personnel of other agencies who assisted or participated in the arrest or investigation of an alien, or who are maintaining custody of an alien; and

9. Prisoners of the U.S. Marshals Service held in ICE detention facilities.


Categories of records in this system include:

1. Biographic, descriptive, historical and other identifying data, including but not limited to: Names; aliases; fingerprint identification number (FIN); date and place of birth; passport and other travel document information; nationality; aliases; Alien Registration Number (A-Number); Social Security Number; contact or location information (e.g., known or possible addresses, phone numbers); visa information; employment, educational, immigration, and criminal history; height, weight, eye color, hair color and other unique physical characteristics (e.g., scars and tattoos).

2. Biometric data: Fingerprints and photographs. DNA samples required by DOJ regulation (see 28 CFR Part 28) to be collected and sent to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). DNA samples are not retained or analyzed by DHS.

3. Information pertaining to ICE’s collection of DNA samples, limited to the date and time of a successful collection and confirmation from the FBI that the sample was able to be sequenced. ICE does not receive or maintain the results of the FBI’s DNA analysis (i.e., DNA sequences).

4. Case-related data, including: Case number, record number, and other data describing an event involving alleged violations of criminal or immigration law (location, date, time, event category, types of criminal or immigration law violations alleged, types of property involved, use of violence, weapons, or assault against DHS personnel or third parties, attempted escape and other related information; event categories describe broad categories of criminal law enforcement, such as immigration worksite enforcement, contraband smuggling, and human trafficking). ICE case management information, including: Case category, case agent, date initiated, and date completed.

5. Birth, marriage, education, employment, travel, and other information derived from affidavits, certificates, manifests, and other documents presented to or collected by ICE during immigration and law enforcement proceedings or activities. This data typically pertains to subjects, relatives, and witnesses.

6. Detention data on aliens, including immigration detainers issued; transportation information; detention-related identification numbers; custodial property; information about an alien’s release from custody on bond, recognizance, or supervision; detention facility; security classification; book-in/book-out date and time; mandatory detention and criminal flags; aggravated felon status; and other alerts.

7. Detention data for U.S. Marshals Service prisoners, including: prisoner’s name, date of birth, country of birth, detainee identification number, FBI identification number, State identification number, book-in date, book-out date, and security classification;

8. Limited health information relevant to an individual’s placement in an ICE detention facility or transportation requirements (e.g., general informationon physical disabilities or other special needs to ensure that an individual is placed in a facility or bed that can accommodate their requirements). Medical records about individuals in ICE custody (i.e., records relating to the diagnosis or treatment of individuals) are maintained in DHS/ICE—013 Alien Medical Records System of Records;

9. Progress, status and final result of removal, prosecution, and other DHS processes and relating appeals, including: information relating to criminal convictions, incarceration, travel documents and other information pertaining to the actual removal of aliens from the United States.

10. Contact, biographical and identifying data of relatives, attorneys or representatives, associates or witnesses of an alien in proceedings initiated and/or conducted by DHS including, but not limited to: name, date of birth, place of birth, telephone number, and business or agency name.

11. Data concerning personnel of other agencies that arrested, or assisted or participated in the arrest or investigation of, or are maintaining custody of an individual whose arrest record is contained in this system of records. This can include: name, title, agency name, address, telephone number and other information.

12. Data about persons who post or arrange an immigration bond for the release of an individual from ICE custody, or receive custodial property of an individual in ICE custody. This data may include: name, address, telephone number, Social Security Number and other information.


8 U.S.C. 1103, 1225, 1226, 1324, 1357, 1360, and 1365(a)(b); Justice for All Act of 2004 (Pub. L. 108-405); DNA Fingerprint Act of 2005 (Pub. L. 109-162); Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 (Pub. L. 109-248); and 28 CFR Part 28, “DNA-Sample Collection and Biological Evidence Preservation in the Federal Jurisdiction.”


The purposes of this system are:

1. To support the identification, apprehension, and removal of individuals unlawfully entering or present in the United States in violation of the Immigration and Nationality Act, including fugitive aliens.

2. To support the identification and arrest of individuals (both citizens and non-citizens) who commit violations of Federal criminal laws enforced by DHS.

3. To track the process and results of administrative and criminal proceedings against individuals who are alleged to have violated the Immigration and Nationality Act or other laws enforced by DHS.

4. To support the grant, denial, and tracking of individuals who seek or receive parole into the United States.

5. To provide criminal and immigration history information during DHS enforcement encounters, and background checks on applicants for DHS immigration benefits (e.g., employment authorization and petitions).

6. To identify potential criminal activity, immigration violations, and threats to homeland security; to uphold and enforce the law; and to ensure public safety.


In addition to those disclosures generally permitted under 5 U.S.C. 552a(b) of the Privacy Act, all or a portion of the records or information contained in this system may be disclosed outside DHS as a routine use pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a(b)(3) as follows:

A. To the Department of Justice (DOJ) or other Federal agency conducting litigation or in proceedings before any court, adjudicative or administrative body, or to a court, magistrate, administrative tribunal, opposing counsel, parties, and witnesses, in the course of a civil or criminal proceeding before a court or adjudicative body when it is necessary to the litigation and one of the following is a party to the litigation or has an interest in such litigation:

1. DHS or any component thereof;

2. Any employee of DHS in his/her official capacity;

3. Any employee of DHS in his/her individual capacity where DOJ or DHS has agreed to represent the employee; or

4. The U.S. or any agency thereof, is a party to the litigation or has an interest in such litigation, and DHS determines that the records are both relevant and necessary to the litigation and the use of such records is compatible with the purpose for which DHS collected the records.

B. To a congressional office from the record of an individual in response to an inquiry from that congressional office made at the request of the individual to whom the record pertains.

C. To the National Archives and Records Administration or other Federal government agencies pursuant to records management inspections being conducted under the authority of 44 U.S.C. 2904 and 2906.

D. To an agency, organization, or individual for the purpose of performing audit or oversight operations as authorized by law, but only such information as is necessary and relevant to such audit or oversight function.

E. To appropriate agencies, entities, and persons when:

1. DHS suspects or has confirmed that the security or confidentiality of information in the system of records has been compromised;

2. DHS has determined that as a result of the suspected or confirmed compromise there is a risk of harm to economic or property interests, identity theft or fraud, or harm to the security or integrity of this system or other systems or programs (whether maintained by DHS or another agency or entity) or harm to the individual who relies upon the compromised information; and

3. The disclosure made to such agencies, entities, and persons is reasonably necessary to assist in connection with DHS’s efforts to respond to the suspected or confirmed compromise and prevent, minimize, or remedy such harm.

F. To contractors and their agents, grantees, experts, consultants, and others performing or working on a contract, service, grant, cooperative agreement, or other assignment for DHS, when necessary to accomplish an agency function related to this system of records. Individuals provided information under this routine use are subject to the same Privacy Act requirements and limitations on disclosure as are applicable to DHS officers and employees.

G. To an appropriate Federal, State, Tribal, local, international, or foreign law enforcement agency or other appropriate authority charged with investigating or prosecuting a violation or enforcing or implementing a law, rule, regulation, or order, where a record, either on its face or in conjunction with other information, indicates a violation or potential violation of law, which includes criminal, civil, or regulatory violations and such disclosure is proper and consistent with the official duties of the person making the disclosure.

H. To a court, magistrate, or administrative tribunal in the course of presenting evidence, including disclosures to opposing counsel or witnesses in the course of civil discovery, litigation, or settlement negotiations, including to an actual or potential party or his or her attorney, or in connection with criminal law proceedings.

I. To other Federal, State, local, or foreign government agencies,individuals, and organizations during the course of an investigation, proceeding, or activity within the purview of immigration and nationality laws to elicit information required by DHS/ICE to carry out its functions and statutory mandates.

J. To the appropriate foreign government agency charged with enforcing or implementing laws where there is an indication of a violation or potential violation of the law of another nation (whether civil or criminal), and to international organizations engaged in the collection and dissemination of intelligence concerning criminal activity.

K. To other Federal agencies for the purpose of conducting national intelligence and security investigations.

L. To any Federal agency, where appropriate, to enable such agency to make determinations regarding the payment of Federal benefits to the record subject in accordance with that agency’s statutory responsibilities.

M. To foreign governments for the purpose of coordinating and conducting the removal of aliens to other nations; and to international, foreign, and intergovernmental agencies, authorities, and organizations in accordance with law and formal or informal international arrangements.

N. To family members and attorneys or other agents acting on behalf of an alien, to assist those individuals in determining whether: (1) The alien has been arrested by DHS for immigration violations; (2) the location of the alien if in DHS custody; or (3) the alien has been removed from the United States, provided however, that the requesting individuals are able to verify the alien’s date of birth or Alien Registration Number (A-Number), or can otherwise present adequate verification of a familial or agency relationship with the alien.

O. To the DOJ Executive Office of Immigration Review (EOIR) or their contractors, consultants, or others performing or working on a contract for EOIR, for the purpose of providing information about aliens who are or may be placed in removal proceedings so that EOIR may arrange for the provision of educational services to those aliens under EOIR’s Legal Orientation Program.

P. To attorneys or legal representatives for the purpose of facilitating group presentations to aliens in detention that will provide the aliens with information about their rights under U.S. immigration law and procedures.

Q. To a Federal, State, Tribal or local government agency to assist such agencies in collecting the repayment of recovery of loans, benefits, grants, fines, bonds, civil penalties, judgments or other debts owed to them or to the U.S. Government, and/or to obtain information that may assist DHS in collecting debts owed to the U.S. Government.

R. To the State Department in the processing of petitions or applications for immigration benefits and non-immigrant visas under the Immigration and Nationality Act, and all other immigration and nationality laws including treaties and reciprocal agreements; or when the State Department requires information to consider and/or provide an informed response to a request for information from a foreign, international, or intergovernmental agency, authority, or organization about an alien or an enforcement operation with transnational implications.

S. To the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in connection with the review of private relief legislation as set forth in OMB Circular No. A-19 at any stage of the legislative coordination and clearance process as set forth in the Circular.

T. To the U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary or the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on the Judiciary when necessary to inform members of Congress about an alien who is being considered for private immigration relief.

U. To a criminal, civil, or regulatory law enforcement authority (whether Federal, State, local, territorial, Tribal, international or foreign) where the information is necessary for collaboration, coordination and de-confliction of investigative matters, to avoid duplicative or disruptive efforts and for the safety of law enforcement officers who may be working on related investigations.

V. To the U.S. Marshals Service concerning Marshals Service prisoners that are or will be held in detention facilities operated by or on behalf of ICE in order to coordinate the transportation, custody, and care of these individuals.

W. To third parties to facilitate placement or release of an alien (e.g., at a group home, homeless shelter, etc.) who has been or is about to be released from ICE custody but only such information that is relevant and necessary to arrange housing or continuing medical care for the alien.

X. To an appropriate domestic government agency or other appropriate authority for the purpose of providing information about an alien who has been or is about to be released from ICE custody who, due to a condition such as mental illness, may pose a health or safety risk to himself/herself or to the community. ICE will only disclose information about the individual that is relevant to the health or safety risk they may pose and/or the means to mitigate that risk (e.g., the alien’s need to remain on certain medication for a serious mental health condition).

Y. To the DOJ Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) and other Federal, State, local, territorial, Tribal and foreign law enforcement or custodial agencies for the purpose of placing an immigration detainer on an individual in that agency’s custody, or to facilitate the transfer of custody of an individual from ICE to the other agency. This will include the transfer of information about unaccompanied minor children to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to facilitate the custodial transfer of such children from ICE to HHS.

Z. To DOJ, disclosure of DNA samples and related information as required by 28 CFR Part 28.

AA. To DOJ, disclosure of arrest and removal information for inclusion in relevant DOJ law enforcement databases and for use in the enforcement Federal firearms laws (e.g., Brady Act).

BB. To Federal, State, local, Tribal, territorial, or foreign governmental or quasi-governmental agencies or courts to confirm the location, custodial status, removal or voluntary departure of an alien from the United States, in order to facilitate the recipient agencies’ exercise of responsibilities pertaining to the custody, care, or legal rights (including issuance of a U.S. passport) of the removed individual’s minor children, or the adjudication or collection of child support payments or other debts owed by the removed individual.

CC. Disclosure to victims regarding custodial information, such as release on bond, order of supervision, removal from the United States, or death in custody, about an individual who is the subject of a criminal or immigration investigation, proceeding, or prosecution.

DD. To any person or entity to the extent necessary to prevent immediate loss of life or serious bodily injury, (e.g., disclosure of custodial release information to witnesses who have received threats from individuals in custody.)

EE. To an individual or entity seeking to post or arrange, or who has already posted or arranged, an immigration bond for an alien to aid the individual or entity in (1) identifying the location of the alien, or (2) posting the bond, obtaining payments related to the bond,or conducting other administrative or financial management activities related to the bond.

FF. To appropriate Federal, State, local, Tribal, or foreign governmental agencies or multilateral governmental organizations where DHS is aware of a need to utilize relevant data for purposes of testing new technology and systems designed to enhance national security or identify other violations of law.

GG. To the news media and the public, with the approval of the Chief Privacy Officer in consultation with counsel, when there exists a legitimate public interest in the disclosure of the information or when disclosure is necessary to preserve confidence in the integrity of DHS or is necessary to demonstrate the accountability of DHS’s officers, employees, or individuals covered by the system, except to the extent it is determined that release of the specific information in the context of a particular case would constitute an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.





Information can be stored in case file folders, cabinets, safes, or a variety of electronic or computer databases and storage media.


Records may be retrieved by name, identification numbers including, but not limited to, alien registration number (A-Number), fingerprint identification number, Social Security Number, case or record number if applicable, case related data and/or combination of other personal identifiers including, but not limited to, date of birth and nationality.


Records in this system are safeguarded in accordance with applicable rules and policies, including all applicable DHS automated systems security and access policies. Strict controls have been imposed to minimize the risk of compromising the information that is being stored. Access to the computer system containing the records in this system is limited to those individuals who have a need to know the information for the performance of their official duties and who have appropriate clearances or permissions.


ICE is in the process of drafting a proposed record retention schedule for the information maintained in the Enforcement Integrated Database (EID). ICE anticipates retaining records of arrests, detentions and removals in EID for one-hundred (100) years; records concerning U.S. Marshals Service prisoners for ten (10) years; fingerprints and photographs collected using Mobile IDENT for up to seven (7) days in the cache of an encrypted government laptop; Enforcement Integrated Database Data Mart (EID-DM), ENFORCE Alien Removal Module Data Mart (EARM-DM), and ICE Integrated Decision Support (IIDS) records for seventy-five (75) years; user account management records (UAM) for ten (10) years following an individual’s separation of employment from Federal service; statistical records for ten (10) years; audit files for fifteen (15) years; and backup files for up to one (1) month.

ICE anticipates retaining records from the Fugitive Case Management System (FCMS) for ten (10) years after a fugitive alien has been arrested and removed from the United States; 75 years from the creation of the record for a criminal fugitive alien that has not been arrested and removed; ten (10) years after a fugitive alien reaches 70 years of age, provided the alien has not been arrested and removed and does not have a criminal history in the United States; ten (10) years after a fugitive alien has obtained legal status; ten (10) years after arrest and/or removal from the United States for a non-fugitive alien’s information, whichever is later; audit files for 90 days; backup files for 30 days; and reports for ten (10) years or when no longer needed for administrative, legal, audit, or other operations purposes.


Unit Chief, Law Enforcement Systems/Data Management, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Office of Investigations Law Enforcement Support and Information Management Division, Potomac Center North, 500 12th Street, SW., Washington, DC 20536.


The Secretary of Homeland Security has exempted this system from the notification, access, and amendment procedures of the Privacy Act because it is a law enforcement system. However, ICE will consider individual requests to determine whether or not information may be released. Thus, individuals seeking notification of and access to any record contained in this system of records, or seeking to contest its content, may submit a request in writing to ICE’s FOIA Officer, whose contact information can be found at http://www.dhs.gov/foia under “contacts.”

When seeking records about yourself from this system of records or any other Departmental system of records your request must conform with the Privacy Act regulations set forth in 6 CFR Part 5. You must first verify your identity, meaning that you must provide your full name, current address and date and place of birth. You must sign your request, and your signature must either be notarized or submitted under 28 U.S.C. 1746, a law that permits statements to be made under penalty of perjury as a substitute for notarization. While no specific form is required, you may obtain forms for this purpose from the Chief Privacy Officer and Chief Freedom of Information Act Officer, http://www.dhs.gov or 1-866-431-0486. In addition you should provide the following:

• An explanation of why you believe the Department would have information on you;

• Identify which component(s) of the Department you believe may have the information about you;

• Specify when you believe the records would have been created;

• Provide any other information that will help the FOIA staff determine which DHS component agency may have responsive records; and

• If your request is seeking records pertaining to another living individual, you must include a statement from that individual certifying his/her agreement for you to access his/her records.

Without this bulleted information the component(s) may not be able to conduct an effective search, and your request may be denied due to lack of specificity or lack of compliance with applicable regulations.


See“Notification procedure” above.


See“Notification procedure” above.


Records in the system are supplied by several sources. In general, information is obtained from individuals covered by this system, and other Federal, State, local, Tribal, or foreign governments. More specifically, DHS/ICE-011 records derive from the following sources:

(a) Individuals covered by the system and other individuals (e.g., witnesses, family members);

(b) Other Federal, State, local, Tribal, or foreign governments and government information systems;

(c) Business records;

(d) Evidence, contraband, and other seized material; and

(e) Public and commercial sources.


The Secretary of Homeland Security has exempted portions of this system of records from subsections (c)(3) and (4); (d); (e)(1), (e)(2), (e)(3), (e)(4)(G), (e)(4)(H), (e)(5), and (e)(8); and (g) of the Privacy Act pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a(j)(2). In addition, the Secretary of Homeland Security has exempted portions of this system of records from subsections (c)(3); (d); (e)(1), (e)(4)(G), and (e)(4)(H) of the Privacy Act pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a(k)(2). These exemptions apply only to the extent that records in the system are subject to exemption pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552a(j)(2) and (k)(2).

In addition, to the extent a record contains information from other exempt systems of records, DHS will rely on the exemptions claimed for those systems.

Dated: February 24, 2010. Mary Ellen Callahan,Chief Privacy Officer, Department of Homeland Security.


If you are in need of an Immigration DNA test, such as a paternity test, we can help. Contact us today for more information. 888-362-4339

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The Importance Of DNA In Estate Planning

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 11:35 AM
Friday, July 27, 2012

Regardless of net worth, it is important for all individuals to have a basic estate plan in place.  This can be done with a family attorney or there are many online legal aid sites that can assist you in creating the proper document. Most often the biological children of deceased individuals have inheritance rights, DNA is being used more and more when estates are in question.

In some cases, previously unknown children can appear to claim part of the estate. Or, a greedy or unhappy family members may claim that a beneficiary is not a biological descendant of the deceased person. Depending on the timing of the claim, defending this claim could require exhumation or testing of autopsy specimens, neither of which is a pleasant process and which can be an expensive process.

DNA has emerged as a common tool in modern human identification and has magnificent and unparalleled applications in modern society. The best defense is a strong offense. In many cases proper legal registration of your DNA profile with your estate planner or attorney will help ensure legal and rightful administration of your estate, should the need arise.

The DNA relationship testing market has been growing steadily over the last twenty years.  Prices are decreasing and the easy of testing is increasing. Today, it is projected that the annual number of persons that will participate in some type of paternity or extended relationship test will exceed 1 million. In sharp contrast, it is estimated that less than 200,000 persons were tested in 1988. The increased demand for DNA testing has been fueled by greater public awareness of the power of DNA and the affordability and easy access to testing.

According to the National Center for Health Statistics, 2007 was a record year for births in the United States, there were 4,315,000 recorded births. Experts think that the increase has to do with a range of factors, including immigrants having more children, professional women delaying pregnancy until their 40s and a larger population of women in their 20s and 30s. These factors, coupled with the fact that 38.5% of all U.S. births in 2006 were from unwed mothers translates into an increasing need for education of families about the importance of knowing ones biological parents.

About DNA

DNA is the map of life and defines the essence of our individuality. Despite the size of the human genome, over 3.2 billion genetic markers, 99.9% of the DNA in all unrelated people in the world is identical. Thus, the vast differences observed in the human race are created from the minute differences in only 0.1% of DNA. An individual’s DNA can contain valuable information to help the lives of present and future generations. Locked in our DNA code are the secrets of our ancestry and medical conditions that scientists are only now beginning to understand.


It is natural for families to want to know who the biological father of their baby is. Nationwide, approximately 30% of tested men are excluded as the biological father.  That means that 3 out of 10 test comes back as a negative result for paternity. A child has the right to the sense of identity that comes from knowing who both biological parents are. Knowledge of a child’s biological heritage is also very important in understanding future possible health risks. In addition, determining paternity gives a child legal right to receive financial support from the father and to inherit from the father.  This is the same if the mother is unknown.  In an era when adoption is a popular option it is important to remember that more and more people do not know either biological parent.


Relationship DNA testing can determine if a long lost brother or sister, grandparent, aunt or uncle is truly related to the family in question. DNA testing can also reveal if twins are identical or fraternal. Modern DNA testing can provide answers for a new world of relationships. Paternity testing can also be performed indirectly by testing relatives of an alleged father.


If a person is deceased or unavailable for testing which is often the case in the question of estate settlement, forensic DNA testing can be an invaluable tool.  DNA can be found on evidence that is decades old. Common sources of forensic DNA evidence include: fingernail clippings, hair with roots or follicles, chewing gum, used beverage containers, eyeglasses, hats, lickable stamps or envelopes, teeth, post mortem tissue, a toothbrush, or cigarette butt.  The results that can be looked for from each item differs and it is best to contact your laboratory to see what items they recommend. For more infomation on DNA testing and how it can asssit you please contact DNA Identifiers.  Remeber regardless of you net worth it is important to have an estate plan in place and DNA can be an important part of your plan.

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Plan Your Immigration At Every Stage

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 2:43 PM
Wednesday, March 31, 2010

By Arif Hussain

According to the U.N. Population Division, there are now almost 200 million international migrants  and about 50% of these existing immigrants are illegal OR undocumented. The worldwide immigration trend is increasing day by day.

The people intending immigrate also do not have good immigration plans to retain their legal status for a longer duration once they are in a country. They normally overstay their Visa period due to many reasons beyond their control. Then these overstayed / illegal immigrants are forced to live under inhumane circumstances for next many years of their life in many instances.

Immigration Laws and society at large do not help illegal immigrants.

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Have A Simple Immigration Aim

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 3:30 PM
Wednesday, December 30, 2009

by Arif Hussain

If you are serious to try your luck with immigration to USA, UK OR any other 1st world countries, spend some time to develop your workable immigration plan. Your time spent on research will not go waste. You must exactly know what to do and How to do it.

Your first step is to define your Immigration Aim clearly.

How to define your immigration aim is the core point on which your complete immigration plan will be evolving. Let us take few examples of Immigration Aims.

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Immigration DNA Testing Gets Positive Results

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 12:51 PM
Tuesday, December 22, 2009

While there are numerous kinds of DNA testing that are available through web sites, there are some that have less of the public’s attention than others. While everyone seems most familiar with the standbys like paternity testing, there are other variations like Immigration DNA testing that serve a great purpose in reuniting families that have been separated when family members immigrate to new countries.

First Things First

First of all, there are several things that you’ll need to know about the process of DNA testing in general if you want to have a rounded view of what this science that has spawned the likes of paternity testing and even Infidelity DNA Testing is all about.

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Copy of INS Memorandum on DNA Testing to Establish Family Relationships

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 2:33 PM
Wednesday, September 30, 2009

July 14, 2000

U.S. Department of Justice
Immigration and Naturalization Service
425 I Street NW
Washington, DC 20536

HQADN 70/11




Michael D. Cronin
Acting Executive Associate Commissioner
Office of Programs

SUBJECT:    Guidance on Parentage Testing for Family-Based Immigrant Visa Petitions

The purpose of this memorandum is to provide guidance to Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) field offices on parentage testing to establish a claimed relationship for benefits under the Immigration and Nationality Act. Such testing may be appropriate to establish a parental relationship in support of a petition for a child, son, or daughter (Form I-130). The procedures discussed in this memorandum may also apply to establishing the biological parent of a foreign-born adopted child to support an orphan petition (Form I-600) or to establishing a parental relationship for citizenship cases (Form N-600). In addition, these procedures may be used to establish a parental relationship for refugee and asylum relative petitions (Form I-730). This memorandum has the concurrence of the Office of Policy and Planning and the Office of the General Counsel.
Authority to Require Parentage Testing

A petitioner must establish eligibility for a requested immigration benefit. An application or petition must be filed with any initial evidence required by regulation or by the form instructions. Any evidence submitted is considered part of the relating petition or application and may establish eligibility. 8 CFR 103.2(b)(1).

In the case of a petition for a child, son, or daughter, the petitioner must provide evidence of the claimed relationship. 8 CFR 204.2(d)(2). The initial evidence for a child, son, or daughter includes a birth certificate. When a birth certificate is unavailable, the petitioner must demonstrate that it is not available and submit secondary evidence, such as a baptismal certificate, or church or school records. If the petitioner demonstrates that both initial and secondary evidence is unavailable, two or more affidavits may be substituted. However, the unavailability of a birth certificate creates a presumption of ineligibility for the benefit, and any alternative evidence submitted must be evaluated for its authenticity and credibility. 8 CFR 103.2(b)(2)(i) and 204.2(d)(2)(v).

A director may also require that Blood Group Antigen or Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) blood parentage testing be conducted on the child, son, or daughter and putative mother and father to establish eligibility for a benefit. 8 CFR 204.2(d)(2)(vi). Statistical analysis of these tests provides a likelihood of parentage. These test results will often establish or disprove the claimed parental relationship. Since blood parentage testing can be a valuable tool to verify a relationship, it may generally be required when initial and secondary forms of evidence have proven insufficient to prove a claimed relationship. As a result of technological advances, field offices should be aware that Blood Group Antigen and HLA tests are no longer widely available for testing by laboratories, and are not considered to be as reliable as DNA tests.

Although a director may require blood parentage testing, he or she has no statutory or regulatory authority to require DNA testing. However, when initial and secondary forms of evidence have proven inconclusive and blood parentage testing does not clearly establish the claimed parental relationship, field offices may have no alternative to suggesting DNA testing as a means of establishing the relationship. The petitioner has the burden of proof when the evidence submitted has not satisfied his evidentiary threshold and the INS would otherwise deny the petition without more conclusive evidence such as that which DNA testing could provide. In such cases, field offices should inform the petitioner that: 1) DNA testing is absolutely voluntary; 2) the costs of DNA testing and related expenses (such as doctor’s fees and the cost of transmitting testing materials and blood samples) must be borne exclusively by the petitioner; and 3) submitting to DNA testing is in no way a guarantee of the approval of the petition.

Field offices should keep in mind that no parentage testing, including DNA testing, is 100 percent conclusive. Therefore, due to the expense, complexity and logistical problems and sensitivity inherent in parentage testing, offices should be extremely cautious when requiring blood testing or suggesting DNA testing as a means of establishing a claimed parental relationship.

While blood testing is not and should not be a routine part of the adjudications process, it can be an extremely valuable tool in cases when it otherwise would be impossible to verify a relationship. Parentage blood tests involve laboratory procedures performed on blood samples or other genetic material obtained from the child and putative parent or parents. The statistical analysis of the blood test provides a likelihood of parentage if the putative parent is not excluded. The likelihood of parentage is greater with increased information. Increasing the number of genetic testing systems tested provides stronger results, while the absence of information diminishes the strength of results. Officers should be aware that parentage testing is an extremely fact-driven procedure. A laboratory may more accurately determine what tests to run based on specific facts. A more accurate answer will be provided by the laboratory if the Officer provides the laboratory with suspicions of fraud or other pertinent facts.
Minimum Standards

Parties tested: The most accurate results are received when the alleged mother, father and child available for testing. However, testing of only the mother and child or father and child are also acceptable.

Statistical probability: All tests must produce a 99.5% statistical probability for the conclusion of results to establish parentage. Laboratories can continue with a battery of tests until a 99.5% conclusion of parentage is established. After testing the samples from all parties, laboratories will produce a conclusion of parentage which will inform field offices which tests were administered and the conclusion for the results they obtained.

Preferred test: The preferred test is the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test drawn with a buccal swab or a PCR test based on a blood sample.

Please see below for a more detailed explanation of the parentage testing process and procedures.
Blood Testing

Blood consists of red and white blood cells, platelets and liquid plasma. Each component of the blood contains several antigens or “markers.” The blood group antigens are structures on the surface of the blood cells that help to distinguish individuals within a population. The antigens, inherited from the parents, are controlled by genes on a pair of chromosomes. Each parent contributes one of each chromosome pair carrying the genes that determine the detectable properties of an offspring’s blood. The presence of a specific antigen indicates a particular genetic composition or marker. Conclusions in parentage blood testing are based upon the principle that the child inherits genetic markers in his or her blood from each of his or her biological parents.

Conventional Blood Tests

There are four basic tests used in conventional blood testing: 1) basic red cell antigens (ABO, MN, CcDEe); 2) extended red cell antigens; 3) white cell antigens (HLA); 4) and red cell enzymes and serum proteins. The laboratory begins by conducting the first test. If parentage cannot be ruled out based on the results of the first test, the laboratory will conduct the second test. The process continues until either the putative parent can be entirely excluded or a good statistical probability is established that the relationship is bona fide.

DNA Testing

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) parentage testing provides an alternative to more conventional parentage blood testing methods. DNA testing can be especially useful in countries with limited medical and transportation facilities because, unlike HLA testing, it does not require the use of live human blood cells, which must be tested within just a few days, and are sometimes difficult to obtain. DNA parentage testing can often provide conclusive results even when not all parties are available for testing.

Officers should be aware that parentage testing technology changes rapidly. Whereas HLA blood testing was widely used until 1994, it is now rarely used. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) tests which have been widely used since 1994 are now being phased out by laboratories in the U.S. The DNA test which is most recommended for use in parentage testing is the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test. Although DNA testing has traditionally been accomplished through blood testing, buccal (mouth or cheek cavity) swabs are an alternative to drawing blood for testing. Cells are drawn from the inside cheek using a long cotton swab. As opposed to blood testing, buccal swab testing does not require the assistance of a physician, and is non-invasive. Nevertheless, it is recommended that only a person specially trained to collect a tissue sampling perform the procedure in order to ensure the quantity is sufficient for testing.

Parentage Testing Procedures

The American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) accredits parentage-testing laboratories for a 2-year period.[1][1]   The current list of AABB accredited parentage testing laboratories is attached to this memorandum. Offices may accept parentage-testing results only from laboratories on this list. The current AABB list does not include any laboratories located overseas, however, the AABB does expect to begin accreditation of laboratories located overseas soon. Therefore, foreign offices should not accept test results from local parentage testing laboratories until the local laboratory has received accreditation from the AABB. The burden of proof is on the petitioner to show that the laboratory chosen is accredited by the AABB.

When a field office requires blood testing or suggests DNA testing, it should provide the petitioner with the list of AABB accredited laboratories. Field offices should be aware that the state designations on the list are for laboratory headquarters. Many laboratories have collection sites in many different states and locations. The petitioner must select a laboratory, contact the laboratory directly, and make the necessary arrangements for conducting the tests. To assure the integrity of the test results, all stages of parentage testing must be conducted under appropriate safeguards. These safeguards must include strict controls concerning: 1) protection of the chain of custody of blood or tissue samples; 2) identification of the parties to be tested, generally by photographing individuals being tested; and 3) correct presentation of test results.

Communication should be directly between the laboratory and the civil surgeon or panel physician or the field office. Under no circumstances should a third party, including the individuals being tested, be permitted to carry or transport blood or tissue samples or test results. Since the applicant bears full financial responsibility for testing, the Service has no objection to that person receiving a copy of the test results from the laboratory or panel physician. It is imperative that the same facility test both the alleged child and the alleged parent(s). Where the petitioner is physically present in the U.S., a U.S.-based lab must conduct the tests and relay the results. Instructions usually require the participation of a witness, identification taken from all (adult) parties involved, and photographs taken of all parties.

Analysis of Test Results

In all cases of parentage testing, laboratories should provide the statistical probability for the conclusion for the results they obtain. Offices should use the following interpretations of the plausibility of parentage to analyze test results. In general, AABB standards mandate 99 percent to be the minimum requirement for the proof of parentage. However, this statement does not mean that all test results 99 percent and higher should be accepted as conclusive proof of parentage, or that all test results below 99 percent exclude parentage. The type of parentage test performed, the genetic profile of the local population, and facts specific to the case will all affect the percentage that an office should require to establish a parental relationship. Field offices should provide laboratories with non-genetic evidence which may affect the lab’s assumptions in performing the testing, analysis of the results or the number of genetic markers tested.

Plausibility of Parentage (Percent)
and  Interpretation

99.80% – 99.90%:  Practically Proved

99.1% – 99.80%:  Extremely Likely

95% – 99%:  Very Likely

90% – 95%:  Likely

80% – 90%:  Undecided

Less than 80%: Not Useful

Please note that in societies where interfamily marriage is common, close relatives will share many genetic markers and the test results of an aunt, uncle, or grandparent of a beneficiary may appear to establish the claimed parental relationship. The statistics used in paternity testing are designed for evaluating an alleged father as compared to unrelated men. Unlike the random population where persons may share genetic markers by chance, related men will share genetic markers by descent. First degree relatives, such as father, brother or son, will share 50% of their genetic material on average. Therefore, directors should consult with local physicians and parentage testing laboratories, and consider local fraud patterns, to determine the appropriate tests and particular test results to reliably establish the parental relationship in questionable cases. Officers should ask labs to calculate both a father-child and uncle-child or sibling relationship in these cases and should examine reports provided by the laboratory to ensure that sufficient testing was done to distinguish between family members. Officers should feel free to contact the laboratory for clarification if the lab’s findings are inconclusive. Labs are able to conduct tests on additional genetic markers if necessary to resolve inconclusive cases.

[1][1] The accreditation standards were developed by the committee on parentage testing of the AABB under a grant from the Federal Office of Child Support Enforcement of the Department of Health and Human Services and with the assistance of special consultants and representatives from the American Bar Association, American Medical Association, American Society of Clinical Pathologists, American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics and the College of American Pathologists.

Immigrant Health Insurance

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 9:51 PM
Monday, June 22, 2009

Loads of people travel to US in search of jobs and many a lucky to find one and stay here. If you are also planning for the same, make sure that you have a proper health insurance policy. To get help in this context, you can make use of the World Wide Web where lots of information is available for each and everyone in terms of health insurance. When you ponder over different health coverage options, you will find a plan available for an immigrants which is known as “Immigrant Health Insurance”, which is most likely the best solution.

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Sponsor Your Elderly Parents

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 9:11 PM
Monday, June 22, 2009

By Lindsay Wagner

Should I consider finding a house nurse? Should I send my parent/parents to an old age home? What will make them happy?

It’s been documented that because millions of people are deciding to migrate, millions of frail elderly people are left behind to fend for themselves. While the young leave their home countries for a better life, their parents are often left in the lurch. It’s estimated that more than 1 000 people a week migrate to Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United States. As a result, Hong Kong has seen a growing number of “elderly orphans”.

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Immigrant Parents

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 8:23 PM
Monday, June 22, 2009

By Alvaro Castillo

“Parents are trying to hold on to their value system and traditions and raise their children that way, but when the children get out of the home, they’re taught to be assertive and parents misinterpret this as disobedience,” said Bella Cenezero of the Parent Support Services Society of B.C. “At the center, they can express their concerns without being blamed or judged.”

But in the GTA, there aren’t enough services to help immigrant families adjust to raising children in a society with different values. “There are very few services dealing with parenting issues here,” said lawyer and activist Avvy Go. “There is always a generational gap between parents and kids. Now add to that culture tensions.”

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2007 Immigration Changes & Actions

posted by DNA Identifiers @ 4:00 PM
Wednesday, June 3, 2009

By Sumeetha Gowda

We would also like to take this opportunity to inform you of some changes and developments that occurred in 2007 in immigration, and remind you of what actions you may be eligible to take currently in your path towards American citizenship.

The Importance of Contacting your Representatives and Senators

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